Trauma to the face can result in a variety of injuries ranging from abraisions and lacerations, to fractures involving the Nose, Jaw, midface and orbit. Careful planning, knowledge of complex anatomic relationships and surgical techniques involving bone fixation with plates and precise layered closure are required to restore normal form and function.
High energy injuries from gunshots or high velocity motor vehicle accidents can result in sections of the face being lost entirely. In these settings advanced techniques of to create local tissue flaps or free tissue transfers with micro-vascular repair may be required. Staged repairs are very common.
In order to treat cancer, the tumor must be resected. Adjuvant therapy with radiation or chemotherapy may also be required. The resulting defect must be analyzed carefully to determine the best way of restoring form and function. For smaller defects, local flaps may be used to close the defect. In large defects, tissue from other areas of the body may need to be transferred.